The branch of mathematics and economics that predicts human behavior and thus helps determine strategy in games is called game theory. The set of theories encompassed under the banner of game theory includes models for biology, economics, criminal investigation, and computer science.
I started thinking about the various applications for game theory when I recently observed a group of ten and eleven year old boys playing Dungeons and Dragons. Apparently the ingredients for success are: rules lawyering at top volume and a tendency to physical violence.
I have no clue how a mathematician would even be able to observe, let alone formulate an algorithm in the midst of that chaos. Hmm, there’s something called chaos theory too. Those wacky math guys come up equations for everything.